- •We demonstrate a mRNA heptaplex, detecting the following transcripts: mucin 4 (MUC4), human β-defensin 1 (HBD1), two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP7, MMP11), δ-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which allows for the discrimination between menstrual and peripheral blood.
- •The test has been used successfully in criminal casework, in which the origin of blood on a rape victim's underwear and trousers was questioned as being menstrual or traumatic peripheral blood.
- •The sensitivity of the test is 0.3 ng of RNA, reliable detection is possible for menstrual blood stains that are up to 1–2 years old if stored at room temperature.
The identification of menstrual blood is an important issue in forensic biology, but currently, there are no confirmatory methods for its detection. Here, we demonstrate a highly reliable simple heptaplex method that allows for the discrimination between menstrual and peripheral blood. The test has been used successfully in criminal casework, in which the origin of blood on a rape victim's underwear and trousers was questioned as being menstrual or traumatic peripheral blood. To solve this problem, transcripts of the following genes were used: mucin 4 (MUC4), human β-defensin 1 (HBD1), two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP7, MMP11), δ-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2), hemoglobin alpha (HBA) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). The sensitivity of the test is 0.3 ng of RNA. The possibility of the detection and differentiation of menstrual and peripheral blood in mixtures that contain other body fluids was investigated. Reliable detection is possible for menstrual blood stains that are up to 1–2 years old if stored at room temperature. This easy approach, thanks to the amplification of 4 vaginal and 2 blood markers, minimizes the risk of false negative results.
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Published online: July 10, 2014
Accepted: July 1, 2014
Received in revised form: June 12, 2014
Received: January 31, 2014
© 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.