The Xibe also called Sibo or Sibe, with a population of 127,900, are a Tungusic population who widely live over Northern China from the Ili area in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the west to the Northeast provinces of Liaoning and Jilin (Fig. S1). Most believe they are descendants of the Xianbei people, a nomadic tribe that established the Northern Wei Dynasty (386–534). By the end of the 17th century, the Xibe tribes in different areas had all been incorporated into the “eight banners” of Mongolia and Manchu. The Xibe people in Northeast and Northwest China have each formed their own characteristics in the course of development. The language and eating, dressing and living habits of the Xibes in the Northeast are close to those of the local Han and Manchu people. Living in more compact communities, those in Xinjiang have preserved more of the characteristics of their language script and life styles.
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Published online: December 18, 2014
Accepted: December 15, 2014
Received in revised form: December 13, 2014
Received: October 4, 2014
© 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.