Research paper| Volume 45, 102195, March 2020

A novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for identification of four body fluids with smartphone detection

Published:November 23, 2019DOI:


      • Method for the detection of a comprehensive body fluid panel using RT-LAMP with an optical detection method.
      • LAMP reaction captured as 96-well format in 30 min with a smart phone, avoiding use of expensive, complicated instrument.
      • The speed, sensitivity, and specificity this method provides is a significant improvement over current bfID methods.


      Messenger RNA profiling for body fluid identification (bfID) is a useful approach to collect contextual information associated with a crime. Current methods require costly fluorescent probes, lengthy amplification protocols and/or time-consuming sample preparation. To simplify this process, we developed a bfID method that has the potential to be rapid in analysis time, inexpensive and fluorescence-free, combining a universal operating procedure with a high-throughout (microwell plate) platform for simultaneous detection of mRNA markers from whole blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal fluid. Full bfID sample preparation and analysis of 23 samples was completed in under 3 h using smart phone optical detection and analysis and show efficacy of the method in a validated blind study. The results provide an efficient, sensitive and specific approach to supplement the current biochemical tests in a forensic laboratory.

      Graphical abstract


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