Ion Torrent ™ Genexus ™ Integrated Sequencer and ForeNGS Analysis Software—An automatic NGS-STR workflow from DNA to profile for forensic science


      • Genexus automates library construction, templating, and sequencing in a single run.
      • ForeNGS Analysis Software is specifically developed in-house for forensic genomics.
      • Genexus–FNAS is a fully automatic DNA-to-Profile workflow for NGS-STR in forensics.
      • Genexus is sensitive enough to detect samples with ≥ 100 pg input DNA.
      • Genexus is suitable for various types of case samples, especially degraded samples.


      The Ion Torrent ™ Genexus ™ Sequencer (Genexus) is a highly integrated instrument that can automate library construction, templating, and sequencing in a single-instrument run. By programing the ForeNGS Analysis Software (FNAS), we bridged the gap between sequencing and genotyping without manual intervention. FNAS can automatically transfer sequencing output files from Genexus, analyze the repeat and flanking regions aligned to the GRCh38 assembly, name the alleles according to the ISFG guidelines, and generate user-friendly interactive profiles. Genexus and FNAS can accomplish the fully automatic DNA-to-Profile workflow in forensics. Based on our experiences, the optimal assay parameters on Genexus were validated as follows: 24 cycles of target amplification for library construction; 40 μL of library and 400 bp of template size for templating; 852 flows of dNTPs by order of Ion samba HID2 for sequencing; and 750,000 reads per sample at minimum for 16 samples multiplexed on a lane. By developmental validations of the Precision ID Globalfiler ™ NGS STR Panel v2, Genexus presented competitive performance at the optimal assay parameters qualified to detect commonly used forensic STR markers. It could produce repeatable and reproducible results, and human profiles could be easily separated from nonhuman profiles. Additionally, Genexus was sensitive enough to detect samples with 100 pg of input DNA, and it was suitable for various types of case samples, especially for low copy number samples and degraded samples. Moreover, minor contributors could be detected between the 4:1 and 1:4 mixtures with an analysis threshold of 50 × . The Genexus workflow is a robust and labor-effective solution enabling forensic scientists to obtain NGS-STR profiles within a single day and with only the need to prepare DNA extracts, then set up Genexus, and finally interpret profiles on FNAS.

      Graphical Abstract


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